Distribution and abundance of ARGs in the eight High Arctic clusters classified by antibiotic class and cluster location. The Chord diagram presents the abundance of ARGs in each sample that associate with each respective antibiotic class among the eight soil clusters (top). Presented below the diagram is the relative abundance of ARGs normalized to the total abundance of 16S rRNA gene (bottom right) and relative proportions of ARG classes in each cluster (bottom left). MLSB denotes Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B. Other labels represent ARGs that do not have a direct antibiotic class. F/C/A denotes florcholoram-phenicol antibiotic class.

AMR Goes Global: Detection of Allochthonous Anthropogenic AMR Genes in High Arctic Regions

This study has been popping up all over the AMR radar for me for the past week; so, when I was stuck in traffic today, I decided to sit down and give the article a read. An interesting read, which does provide insights into the rapid global spread of AMR, this article, however, has been taken way out of context by the headlines of tabloids … Continue reading AMR Goes Global: Detection of Allochthonous Anthropogenic AMR Genes in High Arctic Regions

2001 Matthew J. Arduino, DRPH Under a very high magnification of 50,000x, this scanning electron micrograph (SEM) shows a strain of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria taken from a vancomycin intermediate resistant culture (VISA).Under SEM, one can not tell the difference between bacteria that are susceptible, or multidrug resistant, but with TEM, at least with VISA isolates one can see a thickening in the cell wall that may attribute to their reduced susceptibility to vancomycin . See PHIL 11158 for a black and white version of this image. VISA and VRSA are specific types of antimicrobial-resistant staph bacteria. While most staph bacteria are susceptible to the antimicrobial agent vancomycin some have developed resistance. VISA and VRSA cannot be successfully treated with vancomycin because these organisms are no longer susceptibile to vancomycin. However, to date, all VISA and VRSA isolates have been susceptible to other Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs. How do VISA and VRSA get their names?Staph bacteria are classified as VISA or VRSA based on laboratory tests. Laboratories perform tests to determine if staph bacteria are resistant to antimicrobial agents that might be used for treatment of infections. For vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents, laboratories determine how much of the agent it requires to inhibit the growth of the organism in a test tube. The result of the test is usually expressed as a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or the minimum amount of antimicrobial agent that inhibits bacterial growth in the test tube. Therefore, staph bacteria are classified as VISA if the MIC for vancomycin is 4-8µg/ml, and classified as VRSA if the vancomycin MIC is >16µg/ml.

Study from Private Hospital Chain Reveals High Mortality in Patients with Multi Drug Resistant Infections

My thoughts on a recently published study that looks at the Continue reading Study from Private Hospital Chain Reveals High Mortality in Patients with Multi Drug Resistant Infections